Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Tasik Hubungi : 0812 9133 1086 atau 0818 0833 0038 RAZQA SOUND adalah sebuah jasa pelayanan sewa yang bergerak di bidang jasa sewa soundsystem. Kami melayani berbagai kebutuhan anda, seperti: pernikahan, khitanan, arisan, ulang tahun, peresmian perusahaan, acara pentas seni sekolah dan acara-acara lain nya baik diluar ruangan (outdoor) maupun yang di dalam ruangan Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Tasik
Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Tasik Malaya Hubungi : 0812 9133 1086 atau 0818 0833 0038 RAZQA SOUND adalah sebuah jasa pelayanan sewa yang bergerak di bidang jasa sewa soundsystem. Kami melayani berbagai kebutuhan anda, seperti: pernikahan, khitanan, arisan, ulang tahun, peresmian perusahaan, acara pentas seni sekolah dan acara-acara lain nya baik diluar ruangan (outdoor) maupun yang di dalam ruangan Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Tasik Malaya
Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Urug Tasik Hubungi : 0812 9133 1086 atau 0818 0833 0038 RAZQA SOUND adalah sebuah jasa pelayanan sewa yang bergerak di bidang jasa sewa soundsystem. Kami melayani berbagai kebutuhan anda, seperti: pernikahan, khitanan, arisan, ulang tahun, peresmian perusahaan, acara pentas seni sekolah dan acara-acara lain nya baik diluar ruangan (outdoor) maupun yang di dalam ruangan Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Urug Tasik
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Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Talagasari Tasik Hubungi : 0812 9133 1086 atau 0818 0833 0038 RAZQA SOUND adalah sebuah jasa pelayanan sewa yang bergerak di bidang jasa sewa soundsystem. Kami melayani berbagai kebutuhan anda, seperti: pernikahan, khitanan, arisan, ulang tahun, peresmian perusahaan, acara pentas seni sekolah dan acara-acara lain nya baik diluar ruangan (outdoor) maupun yang di dalam ruangan Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Talagasari Tasik
Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Leuwiliang Tasik Hubungi : 0812 9133 1086 atau 0818 0833 0038 RAZQA SOUND adalah sebuah jasa pelayanan sewa yang bergerak di bidang jasa sewa soundsystem. Kami melayani berbagai kebutuhan anda, seperti: pernikahan, khitanan, arisan, ulang tahun, peresmian perusahaan, acara pentas seni sekolah dan acara-acara lain nya baik diluar ruangan (outdoor) maupun yang di dalam ruangan Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Leuwiliang Tasik
Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Karsamenak Tasik Hubungi : 0812 9133 1086 atau 0818 0833 0038 RAZQA SOUND adalah sebuah jasa pelayanan sewa yang bergerak di bidang jasa sewa soundsystem. Kami melayani berbagai kebutuhan anda, seperti: pernikahan, khitanan, arisan, ulang tahun, peresmian perusahaan, acara pentas seni sekolah dan acara-acara lain nya baik diluar ruangan (outdoor) maupun yang di dalam ruangan Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Karsamenak Tasik
Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Karanganyar Tasik Hubungi : 0812 9133 1086 atau 0818 0833 0038 RAZQA SOUND adalah sebuah jasa pelayanan sewa yang bergerak di bidang jasa sewa soundsystem. Kami melayani berbagai kebutuhan anda, seperti: pernikahan, khitanan, arisan, ulang tahun, peresmian perusahaan, acara pentas seni sekolah dan acara-acara lain nya baik diluar ruangan (outdoor) maupun yang di dalam ruangan Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Karanganyar Tasik
Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Gunungtandala Tasik Hubungi : 0812 9133 1086 atau 0818 0833 0038 RAZQA SOUND adalah sebuah jasa pelayanan sewa yang bergerak di bidang jasa sewa soundsystem. Kami melayani berbagai kebutuhan anda, seperti: pernikahan, khitanan, arisan, ulang tahun, peresmian perusahaan, acara pentas seni sekolah dan acara-acara lain nya baik diluar ruangan (outdoor) maupun yang di dalam ruangan Dimana Tempat Sewa Sound System di Gunungtandala Tasik
saco-indonesia.com, Kapolri Jenderal Sutarman juga mengajak wartawan untuk dapat menjadi intelijen guna untuk membantu memberika
saco-indonesia.com, Kapolri Jenderal Sutarman juga mengajak wartawan untuk dapat menjadi intelijen guna untuk membantu memberikan informasi awal terkait yang dibutuhkan supaya Polri bisa untuk memberikan langkah pencegahan di tiap daerah.
Tidak semua wilayah di Indonesia memiliki intelijen. Oleh karena itu, Kapolri telah meminta wartawan untuk membantu tugas intelijen di setiap daerah. Sehingga, bisa memberikan informasi yang cepat kepada kepolisian.
Pakar intelijen Susaningtyas NH Kertopati (Nuning) juga mengatakan, pernyataan Kapolri di atas dalam konteks wartawan untuk membantu tugas intelijen dan keamanan (Intelkam) bukan masuk dalam struktural organisasi. Menurutnya, tugas wartawan dan intelijen tak terlalu berbeda.
"Tugas wartawan beda tipis dengan intelijen. Bedanya pencarian berita oleh wartawan itu untuk diberitakan, sedang intelijen untuk masukan kepada end user-nya melalui analisa intelijen yang digunakan untuk pengambilan keputusan pengguna utamanya," jelas Nuning yang juga menjabat sebagai Anggota Komisi I DPR ini, Senin (3/2/2014).
Sementara, Ketua Aliansi Jurnalistik Indepependen (AJI) Jakarta, Umar Idris, juga mengatakan tak mungkin seorang wartawan dari sebuah media menjadi intelijen.
"Peryataan Kapolri di luar akal sehat, karena bertentangan dengan Undang-Undang Pers soal profesi wartawan yang hanya tunduk pada etika jurnalistik," tegas Umar.
Menurutnya, wartawan telah memiliki kedudukan hukum yang sama dengan profesi lain, karena telah memiliki tanggung jawab. "Kalau menyambi itu bukan wartawan dan menyalahi kode etik jurnalistik," sambungnya.
Umar pun juga menyarankan kepada Kapolri untuk membatalkan rencana tersebut, karena tidak sesuai fungsinya. "Wartawan telah memiliki pertanggungjawaban kepada publik. Jadi tidak bisa difungsikan menjadi intelijen," pungkasnya.
Editor : Dian Sukmawati
Lokasi Perumahan Terbaik adalah Dekat Pemakaman!, Survei Membuktikan
Saco-Indonesia.com — Bagi tiap-tiap pemilik rumah memiliki kriteria tersendiri mengenai tetangga yang diidam-idamkannya.
Saco-Indonesia.com — Bagi tiap-tiap pemilik rumah memiliki kriteria tersendiri mengenai tetangga yang diidam-idamkannya. Menurut hasil survei yang dilakukan situs properti Redfin, rata-rata pemilik properti di Amerika Serikat menginginkan hal ini. Mereka ingin tinggal berdekatan dengan tetangga yang tidak berisik. Lantas, bagaimana dengan kuburan? Bukankah penghuninya tidak akan berisik selamanya?
Lebih mengejutkan lagi, ternyata survei itu membuktikan bahwa hunian yang berada tidak jauh dari pemakaman memang menarik pasar, meski memakan waktu lebih lama. Berdasarkan survei Redfin tersebut, hunian-hunian yang ada di dekat pemakaman memang membutuhkan waktu lebih lama untuk dijual. Namun, nilainya tidak lebih rendah dari hunian yang berada jauh dari pemakaman.
Seperti diberitakan dalam Huffington Post, rata-rata rumah yang berada paling dekat dengan pemakaman terjual dengan harga 162 dolar AS per kaki persegi (sekitar Rp 1,8 juta). Sementara itu, rumah yang berada lebih jauh (500 yard atau sekitar 457,2 meter) dari pemakaman harganya justru lebih murah, yaitu 145 dollar AS (Rp 1,6 juta) per kaki persegi.
"Memiliki rumah di sebelah pemakaman mungkin lebih sulit untuk dijual. Namun, selalu ada sekelompok orang yang mungkin menyukai spesifikasi rumah tersebut, meski faktor 'menyeramkan' kemungkinan membuat mereka enggan mengelilingi rumah," ujar agen realestat Redfin di Chicago, Amerika Serikat, John Malandrino.
Namun, agen realestat Redfin di Baltimore, Lyn Ikle, mengatakan, "Seperti halnya bicara soal membeli rumah, ada pro dan kontra untuk urusan tinggal di dekat pemakaman. Keuntungannya adalah, umumnya, tidak akan ada pembangunan di masa mendatang di atas pemakaman. Biasanya pula ada ruang terbuka yang terpelihara dengan baik, hening, dan tidak sedikit pemakaman tampak indah. Sisi negatifnya, pemakaman sering kali memberikan perasaan tidak nyaman. Pemakaman seolah merepresentasikan mortalitas."
Survei ini menganalisis data dari 90 data sensus area metro dan mikro di seantero Amerika Serikat pada Januari 2012-September 2013. Data secara lengkap tersedia di situs Redfin.
Editor : Maulana Lee
MOU BIDIK DIEGO LOPEZ
saco-indonesia.com, Jose Mourinho telah menginginkan Diego Lopez untuk dapat menjadi pengawal gawang utama Chelsea, sebagaimana
saco-indonesia.com, Jose Mourinho telah menginginkan Diego Lopez untuk dapat menjadi pengawal gawang utama Chelsea, sebagaimana yang telah dilaporkan oleh harian olahraga asal Portugal - A Bola.
Kiper yang kini telah membela Real Madrid itu sebelumnya juga sudah pernah bekerja sama dengan Jose Mourinho. Berkat The Special One, ia mampu menyingkirkan Iker Casillas untuk mendapat tempat utama di Los Blancos.
Kemungkinan Lopez untuk hijrah ke Chelsea jelas terbuka lebar. Pasalnya, meski ia telah dipercaya oleh Carlo Ancelotti di La Liga, ancaman dari Iker Casillas juga masih terasa nyata bagi pemain yang pernah membela Sevilla tersebut.
Meski hanya bermain di Liga Champions, St Iker telah memiliki rekor yang fantastis. Bermain enam kali, ia telah mencatatkan 3 clean sheet. Lopez sudah bermain 17 kali untuk tim musim ini di La Liga dan hanya bisa membuat 4 clean sheet atau satu lebih banyak dari Casillas.
Chelsea sendiri kini memang sedang mencari pengganti untuk Petr Cech, yang akan berusia 32 tahun Mei mendatang. Thibaut Courtois sebelumnya disebut akan jadi kandidat kuat pengawal gawang anyar The Blues, namun nampaknya Mou lebih menyukai Lopez.
Editor : Dian Sukmawati
SEJARAH NABI DI MUSEUM MEDIA MADINAH
REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, Museum Media Madinah menyimpan sejumlah maket sejarah Nabi Muhammad SAW. Museum ini pun dapat membuat pengunjun
REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, Museum Media Madinah menyimpan sejumlah maket sejarah Nabi Muhammad SAW. Museum ini pun dapat membuat pengunjung membayangkan bagaimana sejarah saat Rasulullah berdakwah.
Antara yang mengunjungi museum, Sabtu, melihat sejumlah maket ditampilkan seperti tiga maket Masjid Nabawi dari bentuk awal, perubahan bentuk saat ada perintah mengubah kiblat, dan bentuk perluasan masjid pada masa Rasulullah.
Maket situasi perang juga ditampilkan seperti Perang Uhud dan Perang Khandaq. Dibandingkan dengan masa Nabi, situasi di bukit Uhud sudah banyak berubah. Pun parit yang digali saat Perang Khandaq sudah tidak ada. Melihat maket itu pun dapat membuat pikiran melayang ke masa itu.
Pengunjung juga diajak untuk menyaksikan tayangan film pembangunan Masjid Nabawi pada jaman Rasulullah yang dinarasikan Muhamad Muslim bin Hasan Bisri asal Cirebon, Jawa Barat.
Ia menjelaskan, awalnya di mesjid seluas 30 x 35 meter itu hanya sebagian yang diberi atap pelepah kurma yaitu pada seperempat bagian belakang mesjid yang disebut sufa.
Sufa adalah tempat musafir dan anak yatim berteduh. Saat malam hari, biasanya Rasulullah mengajak mereka makan malam bersama di rumahnya yang terletak di sebelah kiri depan masjid.
Pada bulan-16 setelah hijrah, masjid sederhana itu mengubah arah kiblatnya dari Masjidil Aqsha ke Ka,bah di Makkah sehingga ada perubahan pintu dan bagian depan.
Kemudian pada tahun ke-6 Hijriah, bagian depan mesjid diberi atap dari tanah liat dengan tinggi sekitar tiga meter karena untuk mencegah air hujan masuk.
Setahun kemudian, setelah Perang Khaibar, masjid diperluas karena jumlah umat Islam sudah semakin banyak. Masjid diperluas di bagian utara dan barat sehingga ukurannya menjadi 50 x 45 meter.
Di museum juga terdapat sejumlah peralatan penyiaran jaman dulu seperti kamera dan proyektor sehingga ada nama media yang menempel pada kata museum. Benda lain yang ditampilkan yakni maket sejumlah masjid bersejarah, sejumlah batu dari berbagai daerah di Madinah, maket Raudhah dan makam nabi, serta tiruan baju perang saat masa Rasulullah.
Sayangnya masih banyak maket yang tidak tampil mungkin karena keterbatasan areal museum seperti Perang Badar, Gua Hira, dan kondisi pemukiman Madinah sejak awal hijrah sampai meninggalnya Rasulullah.
Ruang museum juga sebagian sudah menjadi toko cenderamata yang menjual video kisah perjuangan Islam, Alquran mini, hiasan dinding, hiasan kaca, dan kurma Madinah.
Jamaah haji Indonesia gelombang dua yang akan berkunjung ke Madinah untuk beribadah shalat arbain, bisa memanfaatkan waktu luang mengunjungi museum yang hanya berjarak 1,5 kilometer sebelah timur Mesjid Nabawi. Tiket masuk saat musim haji didiskon 50 persen menjadi hanya 5 riyal atau sekitar Rp15.500 per orang.
Melalui pendapatnya, Ibnu Taimiyah melarang kita pergi ke makam Rasulullah jika kita hanya bertujuan untuk memanjatkan doa
Melalui pendapatnya, Ibnu Taimiyah melarang kita pergi ke makam Rasulullah jika kita hanya bertujuan untuk memanjatkan doa dan mengharap terkabulnya doa di tempat tersebut atau menganggap bahwa berdoa di makam Rasulullah lebih mudah dikabulkan Allah.
Namun jika kita berziarah ke makam beliau, mengucapkan salam kepada penghuni tempat tersebut dan berdoa di sana, maka kita tidak dianggap berbuat syirik atau bid’ah.
Pendapat Ibnu Taimiyah itu terdapat dalam kitab lqtidha’ush Shirathil Mustaqim halaman 336, “Yang masuk dalam kategori ini adalah pergi ke kuburan untuk berdoa di sana atau untuk kuburan itu sendiri. Karena berdoa di kuburan atau di tempat-tempat lain terbagi menjadi dua macam;
Pertama, berdoa di kuburan karena kebetulan. Misalnya, seseorang berjalan sambil membaca doa, lalu kebetulan ia melewati sebuah kuburan. Di tempat tersebut, orang itu tidak berhenti berdoa. Contoh lain, seseorang memang sengaja berziarah ke kuburan, mengucapkan salam kepada penghuninya, dan berdoa kepada Allah memohon kesehatan dirinya dan si mayit. Berdoa di kuburan seperti dalam contoh- contoh tersebut tidak menjadi masalah.
Kedua, sengaja berdoa di makam Rasulullah disertai anggapan bahwa berdoa di tempat tersebut lebih memungkinkan untuk dikabulkan daripada di tempat-tempat yang lain. Berdoa seperti inilah yang dilarang keras. Hukumnya adalah haram mutiak.”
Pada halaman 339 di kitab tersebut, Ibnu Taimiyah menerangkan bahwa barangsiapa mengkaji kitab-kitab atsar dan tahu betul ihwal para ulama salaf, dia akan sa- dar bahwa mereka tidak pernah meminta pertolongan di kuburan itu. Mereka tidak mengunjungi kuburan semata- mata untuk berdoa di tempat tersebut.
Pendapat Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab
Menurut Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, sebagian ulama ada yang memperbolehkan bertawasul terhadap orang-orang shaleh, sebagian yang lagi hanya memperbolehkan bertawasul kepada Rasulullah SAW, namun mayoritas ulama melarang hal tersebut dan menganggapnya sebagai perbuatan makruh. Menurutnya, yang benar adalah apa yang disampaikan oleh mayoritas ulama.
Syaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab menyatakan bahwa dirinya tidak mengingkari tawasul, sebab tidak ada pengingkaran terhadap hasil ijtihad. Beliau hanya menyatakan bahwa pengingkaran hanya wajib terhadap orang yang menganggap makhluk lebih agung dari Allah SWT.
“Kami mengingkari orang yang pergi ke kuburan dan merendahkan diri di hadapan makam Syaikh Abdul Qadiral- Jailani atau yang lainnya, lalu di tempat itu mereka memohon agar dijauhkan dari segala macam musibah, melepas duka cita, dan menggantungkan segala harapan. Perbuatan apa itu semua? Mengapa tidak memohon langsung kepada Allah SWT dengan tulus dan mumi?”
saco-indonesia.com, Awal tahun ini CEO Microsoft, Steve ballmer, telah menyatakan bahwa dirinya akan pensiun dalam waktu 12 bula
saco-indonesia.com, Awal tahun ini CEO Microsoft, Steve ballmer, telah menyatakan bahwa dirinya akan pensiun dalam waktu 12 bulan ke depan. Sejak saat itu, panitia khusus dewan telah melihat sejumlah kandidat untuk dapat menggantikan Ballmer. Namun hingga kini belum ada yang telah menjadi prioritas.
mengungkapkan bahwa hingga awal tahun 2014, Microsoft tidak akan mengumumkan keputusan CEO baru untuk dapat menggantikan Ballmer.
Hal tersebut telah didapat dari sebuah posting melalui blog resmi Microsoft oleh anggota dewan perusahaan, John Thompson. Pihaknya juga telah menyatakan bahwa perlu adanya penelitian yang lebih dalam serta investigasi untuk bisa menentukan pilihan yang tepat.
Selama ini ada beberapa nama yang telah disoroti sebagai calon pengganti Ballmer, diantaranya adalah Alan Mulally yang kini menjadi CEO Ford, Stephen Elop CEO Nokia, serta orang dalam Microsoft sendiri yaitu Satya Nadell dan Tony Bates.
Lantas, siapakah calon pengganti Steve Ballmer untuk bisa menduduki kursi CEO Microsoft tahun depan?
Editor : Dian Sukmawati
HUBUNGAN SAMPAH DAN KESEHATAN
Pada awal kehidaupan manusia, sampah belum menjadi masalah, tetapi dangan
bertambahnya penduduk di mana ruang tetap, semakin hari maslahnya semakin besar. Hal ini jelas
bila kita melihat moderenissasi kehidupan, perkembangan teknologi, sehingga meningkatkan
aktivitas manusia. Sehubungan dengaan kegiatan manusia, maka permasalahan sampah akan berkaitan
baik dari segi social ekonomi maup...
kehidaupan manusia, sampah belum menjadi masalah, tetapi dangan bertambahnya penduduk di mana
ruang tetap, semakin hari maslahnya semakin besar. Hal ini jelas bila kita melihat moderenissasi
kehidupan, perkembangan teknologi, sehingga meningkatkan aktivitas manusia. Sehubungan dengaan
kegiatan manusia, maka permasalahan sampah akan berkaitan baik dari segi social ekonomi maupun
Kesehatan seorang maupun masyarakat merupakan masalah social yang selalu berkaitan antara
komponen-komponen yang ada dalam masyarakat. Sampah bila dapat diamankan tidak menjadi potensi
yang berpengaruh terhadap lingkungan. Namun demikian sebagaimana telah diutarakan di atas, bahwa
sampah yang dikelola tidak berada pada tempat yang menjamin keamanan lingkungan, sehingga
mempunyai dampak terhadap kesehatan lingkungan. Sampah yang tidak dikelola dengan baik ini akan
menjadi bermacam-macam fungsinya, Antara lain :
1. Sebagai sarana penularana penyakit. Hal ini
timbbul karena sampah basah (garbage) dapat menjadi tempat bersarangnya dan
berkembangbiaknya dari bermacam-macam Vektor penularan penyakit. Vektor yang dimaksud adalah:
lalat, Kecoak, nyamuk, dan tikus.
· Kebiasaan lalat: Lalat
biasa hidup di tempat-tempat yang kotor dan tertarik akan bau yang busuk. Benda-benda yang ber
bau busuk juga merupakan makanan lalat. Sampah, terutama sampah basah, cepat berbau busuk,
sehingga merupakan tempat berkembangbiak dan tempat makanan lalat.
· Kebiasaan kecoak:
Kecoak senang tinggal di tempat-tempat yang lembab, berbau, dan keadaan gelap. Tumpukan sampah
yang lembab, berbau, dan terdapat banyak celah-celah yang gelap merupakan tempat berkembang
biaknya kecoak. Lalat dan kecoak merupakan vector penularan penyakit saluran pencernaan
(perut) seperti: diseentri, basiller, disentri amoeba, cholera, typhus abdominalis, diare karena
· Kebiasaan nyamuk:
Nyamuk khususnya nyamuk aedes dan culex suka bersarang pada genangan air. Sampah dari barang-
barang seperti kaleng, kantong plastic, pecahan gelas/botol menjadi tempat genagan air jika hujan
turun, tempat ini sangat disenangi nyamuk aedes sebagai tempat ber kembangnya. Nyamuk merupakan
vector penularan penyakit demam berdarah, kaki gajah, dan malaria.
· Kebiasaan tikus: Tikus
umumnya suka bersarang pada tempat yang banyak makanan, tempat-tempat yag lembab, dan celah-celaj
yang gelap sebagai tempat persembunyiannya. Sampah basah masih banyak mengandung sisa makanan,
agak lembab, dan terdapat celah-celah untuk bersembunyi edari ancama musuh tikus. Oleh karenanya
tikus suka bersarang di tempat pembuangan sampah. Tikus merupakan vector penularan pes.
2. Di samping penularan
penyakit infeksi saluran pencernaan, di dalam tumpukan sampah basah kadang-kadang mengandung
telur cacing. Apabila sampah basah ini diberikan untuk pakan ternak seperti babi tanpa dimasak
terlebih dahulu, maka babi tersebut dapat terjangkit penyakit cacingan
misalnya Trichinosis, penyababnya adalah cacing Trichinella
spiralis. Jika daging babi tersebut tidak sempurna memasaknya kemudian dikonsumsi oleh
manusia, maka manusia pun dapat terjangkit penyakit cacing Trichinella.
3. Dari sampah juga juga
dapat menjadi penyabab penyakit lain seperti penyakit kulit dan jamur.
4. Kemudian selain itu, dampak dari
pembuangan sampah yang tidak memenuhi syarat keamanan lingkungan dan kesehatan, misalnya membuang
sampah secara sembarangan akan mengakibatkan pencemaran lingkungan meliputi pencemaran tanah,
air, dan udara. Sampah-sampah yang dibuang sebagian besar merupakan sampah organic. Bahan-bahan
organic ini mengalami pembusukan secara biologis oleh jasad-jasad renik/mikroba yang bersifat
aerobic. Selain itu juga terjadi proses pembusukan sampah organic berlangsung secara anaerobic
yang berlangsung lama dan akhirnya akan dapat menghasilkan humus yang sangat berguna untuk
penyuburran tanah dan perbaikan kondisi tanah. Namun dampak negatifnya lebih banyak, di
· Sampah-sampah plastic,
pecahan kaca, karet, dan bahan-bahan yang sukar membusuk akan mencemari tanah sehingga dalam
waktu lama tidak dapat ditanami lagi (lahan kritis).
· Hasil proses pembusukan
sampah oleh jasad renik menghasilkan gas-gas seperti: CO2, H2S, CH4, dan NH3, maka udara tercemar
oleh gas-gas tersebut dan menimbulkan bau yang tidak sedap. Disamping itu, jika ada sampah yang
terbakar maka asap-asap yang mengepul ke udara mencemari udara kaena adanya gas CO2 danCO.
· Air rembesan hasil dari
proses pembusukan saampah akan mengalami perporasi yang mengandung bahan terlarut yang dapat
berbahaya untuk kesehatan, dapat mencemari air tanah, serta badab-badan air yang berada dekat
dengan tempat pembuangan akhir sampah apabila tidak dilakukan pengawasan yang baik.
5. Hasil pembusukan sampah dapt juga
menggangu keseimbangan ekosistem,
sp; penyuburan pada
badan-badan air karena menerima nutrien-nutrien hasil pembusukan sampah memungkinkan terjadinya
ledakan populasi tumbuhan air seperti eceng gondok dan akan mengganggu biota lain.
source : http://hizbussalam.blogspot.com
Harus Kita Waspadai 4 efek negatif kafein pada tubuh
Zat Kafein sudah bukan hal asing lagi dalam kehidupan kita. Zat tersebut telah ada di mana-mana, seperti minuman teh, kopi, obat, bahkan pada produk makanan dan minuman dalam kemasan. Meski kafein memiliki efek positif seperti memberikan suntikan energi dan membuat Anda lebih waspada, namun kafein juga bisa memberikan efek buruk pada tubuh.
Saco-Indonesia.com - ZatKafein sudah bukan hal asing lagi dalam kehidupan kita. Zat tersebut telah ada di mana-mana, seperti minuman teh, kopi, obat, bahkan pada produk makanan dan minuman dalam kemasan. Meski kafein memiliki efek positif seperti memberikan suntikan energi dan membuat Anda lebih waspada, namun kafein juga bisa memberikan efek buruk pada tubuh.
Ketika dikonsumsi dengan takaran yang tak tepat, apalagi berlebihan, kafein bisa menyebabkan efek kerusakan pada kesehatan dan tubuh. Berikut adalah empat efek negatif yang bisa dilakukan kafein pada tubuh Anda, seperti dilansir oleh Mag for Women.
Sistem kekebalan tubuh manusia didesain untuk bisa menerima kafein dalam jumlah terbatas setiap hari. Namun beberapa orang memiliki alergi dan sangat sensitif terhadap kafein. Bagi mereka, kafein adalah hal terlarang. Biasanya alergi kafein terjadi pada orang yang memiliki tekanan darah tinggi, sistem pencernaan yang tak sehat, mengalami luka lambung, atau pasien penyakit jantung. Jika Anda mengalami sakit kepala setelah mengonsumsi kafein, bisa jadi itu pertanda alergi dan Anda harus segera menghindarinya.
2. Risiko berkaitan kehamilan
Wanita yang sedang hamil harus lebih berhati-hati sebelum mengonsumsi makanan atau minuman yang mengandung kafein. Kafein tak hanya buruk untuk tubuh ibu, melainkan juga untuk janin mereka. Kafein diketahui bisa meningkatkan risiko komplikasi yang terkait dengan kehamilan. Kafein bisa sampai pada janin dengan cepat setelah melewati plasenta. Mengonsumsi kafein dengan takaran tak benar saat hamil bisa meningkatkan risiko kelahiran prematur atau masalah metabolisme pada bayi yang belum lahir. Kafein juga bisa masuk dalam sistem tubuh janin, meningkatkan kadar racun, dan menyebabkan keguguran.
3. Efek samping
Mengonsumsi kafein berlebihan seperti minum sekitar empat sampai lima cangkir kopi akan memberikan efek samping yang buruk seperti peningkatan detak jantung, merasa grogi dan gelisah, otot bergetar, dan insomnia. Jika ini diteruskan akan menyebabkan rasa lemah dan lelah. Kafein juga bisa menyebabkan masalah pencernaan, kecemasan, dan gelisah. Tak hanya berimbas pada fisik, kafein juga menyebabkan efek samping dalam hal psikologis.
Efek negatif yang buruk dari kafein adalah membuat Anda kecanduan. Kafein sama dengan obat yang akan membuat Anda kecanduan dan tergantung padanya. Itulah kenapa terkadang orang yang sudah kecanduan kopi tak akan bisa meninggalkan kopi dalam sehari. Anda akan merasa efek negatif pada tubuh seperti sakit kepala, gelisah, dan lainnya ketika tak mengonsumsi kopi, setelah kecanduan.
Itulah beberapa efek buruk kafein yang bisa terjadi pada tubuh. Anda boleh mengonsumsi kafein karena memang ada manfaatnya. Namun sebaiknya perhatikan takaran kafein yang dikonsumsi agar tak berbalik memberikan efek negatif pada tubuh.
Editor : Maulana Lee
OMBAK TINGGI MASIH MELANDA LAUT JAWA
saco-indonesia.com, Cuaca buruk yang berupa ombak setinggi tiga meter disertai hujan dan badai masih telah melanda Laut Jawa. Im
saco-indonesia.com, Cuaca buruk yang berupa ombak setinggi tiga meter disertai hujan dan badai masih telah melanda Laut Jawa. Imbasnya, nelayan di Kabupaten Pemalang, Jawa Tengah, telah memilih menambatkan kapal di pelabuhan karena takut jadi korban amukan ombak.
Banyaknya nelayan yang tidak melaut telah membuat pelabuhan dipenuhi ratusan kapal. Sejumlah nelayan juga tampak memperbaiki kapal dan alat tangkap ikan yang berupa jaring dan pancing, sambil menunggu cuaca membaik.
"Saat ini ombak berkisar dua hingga tiga meter dan masih sering terjadi angin badai disertai hujan," ujar seorang nelayan setempat, Marsono, Kamis (13/2/2014).
Menurutnya, jika pun ada nelayan yang nekat melaut, mereka juga hanya mencari ikan di pinggiran dan tidak dalam jangka waktu lama. Ikan yang mereka peroleh juga tidak banyak. "Bila biasanya bisa berada dua pekan di lautan, kini hanya satu hari satu malam langsung pulang," terangnya.
Para nelayan juga berharap cuaca segera membaik sehingga bisa kembali melaut. Saat ini mereka juga hanya mengandalkan penghasilan dari buruh serabutan. "Cuaca buruk seperti ini biasanya akan berlangsung antar dua hingga tiga bulan," pungkasnya.
Sedikitnya nelayan yang melaut juga berimbas pada jumlah pasokan di Tempat Pelalangan Ikan (TPI) Pelabuhan Pemalang. Kalangan pedagang ikan kesulitan untuk mendapat hasil tangkapan nelayan, sehingga harga ikan melambung.
Editor : Dian Sukmawati
Native American Actors Work to Overcome a Long-Documented Bias
Late in April, after Native American actors walked off in disgust from the set of Adam Sandler’s latest film, a western sendup that its distributor, Netflix, has defended as being equally offensive to all, a glow of pride spread through several Native American communities.
Tantoo Cardinal, a Canadian indigenous actress who played Black Shawl in “Dances With Wolves,” recalled thinking to herself, “It’s come.” Larry Sellers, who starred as Cloud Dancing in the 1990s television show “Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman,” thought, “It’s about time.” Jesse Wente, who is Ojibwe and directs film programming at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto, found himself encouraged and surprised. There are so few film roles for indigenous actors, he said, that walking off the set of a major production showed real mettle.
But what didn’t surprise Mr. Wente was the content of the script. According to the actors who walked off the set, the film, titled “The Ridiculous Six,” included a Native American woman who passes out and is revived after white men douse her with alcohol, and another woman squatting to urinate while lighting a peace pipe. “There’s enough history at this point to have set some expectations around these sort of Hollywood depictions,” Mr. Wente said.
The walkout prompted a rhetorical “What do you expect from an Adam Sandler film?,” and a Netflix spokesman said that in the movie, blacks, Mexicans and whites were lampooned as well. But Native American actors and critics said a broader issue was at stake. While mainstream portrayals of native peoples have, Mr. Wente said, become “incrementally better” over the decades, he and others say, they remain far from accurate and reflect a lack of opportunities for Native American performers. What’s more, as Native Americans hunger for representation on screen, critics say the absence of three-dimensional portrayals has very real off-screen consequences.
“Our people are still healing from historical trauma,” said Loren Anthony, one of the actors who walked out. “Our youth are still trying to figure out who they are, where they fit in this society. Kids are killing themselves. They’re not proud of who they are.” They also don’t, he added, see themselves on prime time television or the big screen. Netflix noted while about five people walked off the “The Ridiculous Six” set, 100 or so Native American actors and extras stayed.
But in interviews, nearly a dozen Native American actors and film industry experts said that Mr. Sandler’s humor perpetuated decades-old negative stereotypes. Mr. Anthony said such depictions helped feed the despondency many Native Americans feel, with deadly results: Native Americans have the highest suicide rate out of all the country’s ethnicities.
The on-screen problem is twofold, Mr. Anthony and others said: There’s a paucity of roles for Native Americans — according to the Screen Actors Guild in 2008 they accounted for 0.3 percent of all on-screen parts (those figures have yet to be updated), compared to about 2 percent of the general population — and Native American actors are often perceived in a narrow way.
In his Peabody Award-winning documentary “Reel Injun,” the Cree filmmaker Neil Diamond explored Hollywood depictions of Native Americans over the years, and found they fell into a few stereotypical categories: the Noble Savage, the Drunk Indian, the Mystic, the Indian Princess, the backward tribal people futilely fighting John Wayne and manifest destiny. While the 1990 film “Dances With Wolves” won praise for depicting Native Americans as fully fleshed out human beings, not all indigenous people embraced it. It was still told, critics said, from the colonialists’ point of view. In an interview, John Trudell, a Santee Sioux writer, actor (“Thunderheart”) and the former chairman of the American Indian Movement, described the film as “a story of two white people.”
“God bless ‘Dances with Wolves,’ ” Michael Horse, who played Deputy Hawk in “Twin Peaks,” said sarcastically. “Even ‘Avatar.’ Someone’s got to come save the tribal people.”
Dan Spilo, a partner at Industry Entertainment who represents Adam Beach, one of today’s most prominent Native American actors, said while typecasting dogs many minorities, it is especially intractable when it comes to Native Americans. Casting directors, he said, rarely cast them as police officers, doctors or lawyers. “There’s the belief that the Native American character should be on reservations or riding a horse,” he said.
“We don’t see ourselves,” Mr. Horse said. “We’re still an antiquated culture to them, and to the rest of the world.”
Ms. Cardinal said she was once turned down for the role of the wife of a child-abusing cop because the filmmakers felt that casting her would somehow be “too political.”
Another sore point is the long run of white actors playing American Indians, among them Burt Lancaster, Rock Hudson, Audrey Hepburn and, more recently, Johnny Depp, whose depiction of Tonto in the 2013 film “Lone Ranger,” was viewed as racist by detractors. There are, of course, exceptions. The former A&E series “Longmire,” which, as it happens, will now be on Netflix, was roundly praised for its depiction of life on a Northern Cheyenne reservation, with Lou Diamond Phillips, who is of Cherokee descent, playing a Northern Cheyenne man.
Others also point to the success of Mr. Beach, who played a Mohawk detective in “Law & Order: Special Victims Unit” and landed a starring role in the forthcoming D C Comics picture “Suicide Squad.” Mr. Beach said he had come across insulting scripts backed by people who don’t see anything wrong with them.
“I’d rather starve than do something that is offensive to my ancestral roots,” Mr. Beach said. “But I think there will always be attempts to drawn on the weakness of native people’s struggles. The savage Indian will always be the savage Indian. The white man will always be smarter and more cunning. The cavalry will always win.”
The solution, Mr. Wente, Mr. Trudell and others said, lies in getting more stories written by and starring Native Americans. But Mr. Wente noted that while independent indigenous film has blossomed in the last two decades, mainstream depictions have yet to catch up. “You have to stop expecting for Hollywood to correct it, because there seems to be no ability or desire to correct it,” Mr. Wente said.
There have been calls to boycott Netflix but, writing for Indian Country Today Media Network, which first broke news of the walk off, the filmmaker Brian Young noted that the distributor also offered a number of films by or about Native Americans.
The furor around “The Ridiculous Six” may drive more people to see it. Then one of the questions that Mr. Trudell, echoing others, had about the film will be answered: “Who the hell laughs at this stuff?”
Jack Ely, Who Sang the Kingsmen’s ‘Louie Louie’, Dies at 71
A 2-minute-42-second demo recording captured in one take turned out to be a one-hit wonder for Mr. Ely, who was 19 when he sang the garage-band classic.
From T Magazine: Street Lit’s Power Couple
THE WRITERS ASHLEY AND JAQUAVIS COLEMAN know the value of a good curtain-raiser. The couple have co-authored dozens of novels, and they like to start them with a bang: a headlong action sequence, a blast of violence or sex that rocks readers back on their heels. But the Colemans concede they would be hard-pressed to dream up anything more gripping than their own real-life opening scene.
In the summer of 2001, JaQuavis Coleman was a 16-year-old foster child in Flint, Mich., the former auto-manufacturing mecca that had devolved, in the wake of General Motors’ plant closures, into one of the country’s most dangerous cities, with a decimated economy and a violent crime rate more than three times the national average. When JaQuavis was 8, social services had removed him from his mother’s home. He spent years bouncing between foster families. At 16, JaQuavis was also a businessman: a crack dealer with a network of street-corner peddlers in his employ.
One day that summer, JaQuavis met a fellow dealer in a parking lot on Flint’s west side. He was there to make a bulk sale of a quarter-brick, or “nine-piece” — a nine-ounce parcel of cocaine, with a street value of about $11,000. In the middle of the transaction, JaQuavis heard the telltale chirp of a walkie-talkie. His customer, he now realized, was an undercover policeman. JaQuavis jumped into his car and spun out onto the road, with two unmarked police cars in pursuit. He didn’t want to get into a high-speed chase, so he whipped his car into a church parking lot and made a run for it, darting into an alleyway behind a row of small houses, where he tossed the quarter-brick into some bushes. When JaQuavis reached the small residential street on the other side of the houses, he was greeted by the police, who handcuffed him and went to search behind the houses where, they told him, they were certain he had ditched the drugs. JaQuavis had been dealing since he was 12, had amassed more than $100,000 and had never been arrested. Now, he thought: It’s over.
But when the police looked in the bushes, they couldn’t find any cocaine. They interrogated JaQuavis, who denied having ever possessed or sold drugs. They combed the backyard alley some more. After an hour of fruitless efforts, the police were forced to unlock the handcuffs and release their suspect.
JaQuavis was baffled by the turn of events until the next day, when he received a phone call. The previous afternoon, a 15-year-old girl had been sitting in her home on the west side of Flint when she heard sirens. She looked out of the window of her bedroom, and watched a young man throw a package in the bushes behind her house. She recognized him. He was a high school classmate — a handsome, charismatic boy whom she had admired from afar. The girl crept outside and grabbed the bundle, which she hid in her basement. “I have something that belongs to you,” Ashley Snell told JaQuavis Coleman when she reached him by phone. “You wanna come over here and pick it up?”
In the Colemans’ first novel, “Dirty Money” (2005), they told a version of this story. The outline was the same: the drug deal gone bad, the dope chucked in the bushes, the fateful phone call. To the extent that the authors took poetic license, it was to tone down the meet-cute improbability of the true-life events. In “Dirty Money,” the girl, Anari, and the crack dealer, Maurice, circle each other warily for a year or so before coupling up. But the facts of Ashley and JaQuavis’s romance outstripped pulp fiction. They fell in love more or less at first sight, moved into their own apartment while still in high school and were married in 2008. “We were together from the day we met,” Ashley says. “I don’t think we’ve spent more than a week apart in total over the past 14 years.”
That partnership turned out to be creative and entrepreneurial as well as romantic. Over the past decade, the Colemans have published nearly 50 books, sometimes as solo writers, sometimes under pseudonyms, but usually as collaborators with a byline that has become a trusted brand: “Ashley & JaQuavis.” They are marquee stars of urban fiction, or street lit, a genre whose inner-city settings and lurid mix of crime, sex and sensationalism have earned it comparisons to gangsta rap. The emergence of street lit is one of the big stories in recent American publishing, a juggernaut that has generated huge sales by catering to a readership — young, black and, for the most part, female — that historically has been ill-served by the book business. But the genre is also widely maligned. Street lit is subject to a kind of triple snobbery: scorned by literati who look down on genre fiction generally, ignored by a white publishing establishment that remains largely indifferent to black books and disparaged by African-American intellectuals for poor writing, coarse values and trafficking in racial stereotypes.
But if a certain kind of cultural prestige is shut off to the Colemans, they have reaped other rewards. They’ve built a large and loyal fan base, which gobbles up the new Ashley & JaQuavis titles that arrive every few months. Many of those books are sold at street-corner stands and other off-the-grid venues in African-American neighborhoods, a literary gray market that doesn’t register a blip on best-seller tallies. Yet the Colemans’ most popular series now regularly crack the trade fiction best-seller lists of The New York Times and Publishers Weekly. For years, the pair had no literary agent; they sold hundreds of thousands of books without banking a penny in royalties. Still, they have earned millions of dollars, almost exclusively from cash-for-manuscript deals negotiated directly with independent publishing houses. In short, though little known outside of the world of urban fiction, the Colemans are one of America’s most successful literary couples, a distinction they’ve achieved, they insist, because of their work’s gritty authenticity and their devotion to a primal literary virtue: the power of the ripping yarn.
“When you read our books, you’re gonna realize: ‘Ashley & JaQuavis are storytellers,’ ” says Ashley. “Our tales will get your heart pounding.”
THE COLEMANS’ HOME BASE — the cottage from which they operate their cottage industry — is a spacious four-bedroom house in a genteel suburb about 35 miles north of downtown Detroit. The house is plush, but when I visited this past winter, it was sparsely appointed. The couple had just recently moved in, and had only had time to fully furnish the bedroom of their 4-year-old son, Quaye.
In conversation, Ashley and JaQuavis exude both modesty and bravado: gratitude for their good fortune and bootstrappers’ pride in having made their own luck. They talk a lot about their time in the trenches, the years they spent as a drug dealer and “ride-or-die girl” tandem. In Flint they learned to “grind hard.” Writing, they say, is merely a more elevated kind of grind.
“Instead of hitting the block like we used to, we hit the laptops,” says Ashley. “I know what every word is worth. So while I’m writing, I’m like: ‘Okay, there’s a hundred dollars. There’s a thousand dollars. There’s five thousand dollars.’ ”
They maintain a rigorous regimen. They each try to write 5,000 words per day, five days a week. The writers stagger their shifts: JaQuavis goes to bed at 7 p.m. and wakes up early, around 3 or 4 in the morning, to work while his wife and child sleep. Ashley writes during the day, often in libraries or at Starbucks.
They divide the labor in other ways. Chapters are divvied up more or less equally, with tasks assigned according to individual strengths. (JaQuavis typically handles character development. Ashley loves writing murder scenes.) The results are stitched together, with no editorial interference from one author in the other’s text. The real work, they contend, is the brainstorming. The Colemans spend weeks mapping out their plot-driven books — long conversations that turn into elaborate diagrams on dry-erase boards. “JaQuavis and I are so close, it makes the process real easy,” says Ashley. “Sometimes when I’m thinking of something, a plot point, he’ll say it out loud, and I’m like: ‘Wait — did I say that?’ ”
Their collaboration developed by accident, and on the fly. Both were bookish teenagers. Ashley read lots of Judy Blume and John Grisham; JaQuavis liked Shakespeare, Richard Wright and “Atlas Shrugged.” (Their first official date was at a Borders bookstore, where Ashley bought “The Coldest Winter Ever,” the Sister Souljah novel often credited with kick-starting the contemporary street-lit movement.) In 2003, Ashley, then 17, was forced to terminate an ectopic pregnancy. She was bedridden for three weeks, and to provide distraction and boost her spirits, JaQuavis challenged his girlfriend to a writing contest. “She just wasn’t talking. She was laying in bed. I said, ‘You know what? I bet you I could write a better book than you.’ My wife is real competitive. So I said, ‘Yo, all right, $500 bet.’ And I saw her eyes spark, like, ‘What?! You can’t write no better book than me!’ So I wrote about three chapters. She wrote about three chapters. Two days later, we switched.”
The result, hammered out in a few days, would become “Dirty Money.” Two years later, when Ashley and JaQuavis were students at Ferris State University in Western Michigan, they sold the manuscript to Urban Books, a street-lit imprint founded by the best-selling author Carl Weber. At the time, JaQuavis was still making his living selling drugs. When Ashley got the phone call informing her that their book had been bought, she assumed they’d hit it big, and flushed more than $10,000 worth of cocaine down the toilet. Their advance was a mere $4,000.
Those advances would soon increase, eventually reaching five and six figures. The Colemans built their career, JaQuavis says, in a manner that made sense to him as a veteran dope peddler: by flooding the street with product. From the start, they were prolific, churning out books at a rate of four or five a year. Their novels made their way into stores; the now-defunct chain Waldenbooks, which had stores in urban areas typically bypassed by booksellers, was a major engine of the street-lit market. But Ashley and JaQuavis took advantage of distribution channels established by pioneering urban fiction authors such as Teri Woods and Vickie Stringer, and a network of street-corner tables, magazine stands, corner shops and bodegas. Like rappers who establish their bona fides with gray-market mixtapes, street-lit authors use this system to circumnavigate industry gatekeepers, bringing their work straight to the genre’s core readership. But urban fiction has other aficionados, in less likely places. “Our books are so popular in the prison system,” JaQuavis says. “We’re banned in certain penitentiaries. Inmates fight over the books — there are incidents, you know? I have loved ones in jail, and they’re like: ‘Yo, your books can’t come in here. It’s against the rules.’ ”
The appeal of the Colemans’ work is not hard to fathom. The books are formulaic and taut; they deliver the expected goods efficiently and exuberantly. The titles telegraph the contents: “Diary of a Street Diva,” “Kiss Kiss, Bang Bang,” “Murderville.” The novels serve up a stream of explicit sex and violence in a slangy, tangy, profane voice. In Ashley & JaQuavis’s books people don’t get killed: they get “popped,” “laid out,” get their “cap twisted back.” The smut is constant, with emphasis on the earthy, sticky, olfactory particulars. Romance novel clichés — shuddering orgasms, heroic carnal feats, superlative sexual skill sets — are rendered in the Colemans’ punchy patois.
Subtlety, in other words, isn’t Ashley & JaQuavis’s forte. But their books do have a grainy specificity. In “The Cartel” (2008), the first novel in the Colemans’ best-selling saga of a Miami drug syndicate, they catch the sights and smells of a crack workshop in a housing project: the nostril-stinging scent of cocaine and baking soda bubbling on stovetops; the teams of women, stripped naked except for hospital masks so they can’t pilfer the merchandise, “cutting up the cooked coke on the round wood table.” The subject matter is dark, but the Colemans’ tone is not quite noir. Even in the grimmest scenes, the mood is high-spirited, with the writers palpably relishing the lewd and gory details: the bodies writhing in boudoirs and crumpling under volleys of bullets, the geysers of blood and other bodily fluids.
The luridness of street lit has made it a flashpoint, inciting controversy reminiscent of the hip-hop culture wars of the 1980s and ’90s. But the street-lit debate touches deeper historical roots, reviving decades-old arguments in black literary circles about the mandate to uplift the race and present wholesome images of African-Americans. In 1928, W. E. B. Du Bois slammed the “licentiousness” of “Home to Harlem,” Claude McKay’s rollicking novel of Harlem nightlife. McKay’s book, Du Bois wrote, “for the most part nauseates me, and after the dirtier parts of its filth I feel distinctly like taking a bath.” Similar sentiments have greeted 21st-century street lit. In a 2006 New York Times Op-Ed essay, the journalist and author Nick Chiles decried “the sexualization and degradation of black fiction.” African-American bookstores, Chiles complained, are “overrun with novels that . . . appeal exclusively to our most prurient natures — as if these nasty books were pairing off back in the stockrooms like little paperback rabbits and churning out even more graphic offspring that make Ralph Ellison books cringe into a dusty corner.”
Copulating paperbacks aside, it’s clear that the street-lit debate is about more than literature, touching on questions of paternalism versus populism, and on middle-class anxieties about the black underclass. “It’s part and parcel of black elites’ efforts to define not only a literary tradition, but a racial politics,” said Kinohi Nishikawa, an assistant professor of English and African-American Studies at Princeton University. “There has always been a sense that because African-Americans’ opportunities to represent themselves are so limited in the first place, any hint of criminality or salaciousness would necessarily be a knock on the entire racial politics. One of the pressing debates about African-American literature today is: If we can’t include writers like Ashley & JaQuavis, to what extent is the foundation of our thinking about black literature faulty? Is it just a literature for elites? Or can it be inclusive, bringing urban fiction under the purview of our umbrella term ‘African-American literature’?”
Defenders of street lit note that the genre has a pedigree: a tradition of black pulp fiction that stretches from Chester Himes, the midcentury author of hardboiled Harlem detective stories, to the 1960s and ’70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines, to the current wave of urban fiction authors. Others argue for street lit as a social good, noting that it attracts a large audience that might otherwise never read at all. Scholars like Nishikawa link street lit to recent studies showing increased reading among African-Americans. A 2014 Pew Research Center report found that a greater percentage of black Americans are book readers than whites or Latinos.
For their part, the Colemans place their work in the broader black literary tradition. “You have Maya Angelou, Alice Walker, James Baldwin — all of these traditional black writers, who wrote about the struggles of racism, injustice, inequality,” says Ashley. “We’re writing about the struggle as it happens now. It’s just a different struggle. I’m telling my story. I’m telling the struggle of a black girl from Flint, Michigan, who grew up on welfare.”
Perhaps there is a high-minded case to be made for street lit. But the virtues of Ashley & JaQuavis’s work are more basic. Their novels do lack literary polish. The writing is not graceful; there are passages of clunky exposition and sex scenes that induce guffaws and eye rolls. But the pleasure quotient is high. The books flaunt a garish brand of feminism, with women characters cast not just as vixens, but also as gangsters — cold-blooded killers, “murder mamas.” The stories are exceptionally well-plotted. “The Cartel” opens by introducing its hero, the crime boss Carter Diamond; on page 9, a gunshot spatters Diamond’s brain across the interior of a police cruiser. The book then flashes back seven years and begins to hurtle forward again — a bullet train, whizzing readers through shifting alliances, romantic entanglements and betrayals, kidnappings, shootouts with Haitian and Dominican gangsters, and a cliffhanger closing scene that leaves the novel’s heroine tied to a chair in a basement, gruesomely tortured to the edge of death. Ashley & JaQuavis’s books are not Ralph Ellison, certainly, but they build up quite a head of steam. They move.
The Colemans are moving themselves these days. They recently signed a deal with St. Martin’s Press, which will bring out the next installment in the “Cartel” series as well as new solo series by both writers. The St. Martin’s deal is both lucrative and legitimizing — a validation of Ashley and JaQuavis’s work by one of publishing’s most venerable houses. The Colemans’ ambitions have grown, as well. A recent trilogy, “Murderville,” tackles human trafficking and the blood-diamond industry in West Africa, with storylines that sweep from Sierra Leone to Mexico to Los Angeles. Increasingly, Ashley & JaQuavis are leaning on research — traveling to far-flung settings and hitting the books in the libraries — and spending less time mining their own rough-and-tumble past.
But Flint remains a source of inspiration. One evening not long ago, JaQuavis led me on a tour of his hometown: a popular roadside bar; the parking lot where he met the undercover cop for the ill-fated drug deal; Ashley’s old house, the site of his almost-arrest. He took me to a ramshackle vehicle repair shop on Flint’s west side, where he worked as a kid, washing cars. He showed me a bathroom at the rear of the garage, where, at age 12, he sneaked away to inspect the first “boulder” of crack that he ever sold. A spray-painted sign on the garage wall, which JaQuavis remembered from his time at the car wash, offered words of warning:
WHAT EVERY YOUNG MAN SHOULD KNOW
ABOUT USING A GUN:
MURDER . . . 30 Years
ARMED ROBBERY . . . 15 Years
ASSAULT . . . 15 Years
RAPE . . . 20 Years
POSSESSION . . . 5 Years
JACKING . . . 20 YEARS
“We still love Flint, Michigan,” JaQuavis says. “It’s so seedy, so treacherous. But there’s some heart in this city. This is where it all started, selling books out the box. In the days when we would get those little $40,000 advances, they’d send us a couple boxes of books for free. We would hit the streets to sell our books, right out of the car trunk. It was a hustle. It still is.”
One old neighborhood asset that the Colemans have not shaken off is swagger. “My wife is the best female writer in the game,” JaQuavis told me. “I believe I’m the best male writer in the game. I’m sleeping next to the best writer in the world. And she’s doing the same.”
Dan Walker, 92, Dies; Illinois Governor and Later a U.S. Prisoner
As governor, Mr. Walker alienated Republicans and his fellow Democrats, particularly the Democratic powerhouse Richard J. Daley, the mayor of Chicago.
But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.
The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.
Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.
The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.
“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”
The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.
What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.
Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.
“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.
Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.
Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.
Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.
Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”
By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.
Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.
White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.
The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.
As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.
“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”
“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.
The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)
But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.
Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.
“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”
Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.
The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.
The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”
Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.
Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”
Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.
While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.
An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.
“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”
An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.
“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.
But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.
“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”
Hard but Hopeful Home to ‘Lot of Freddies’
Todd Heisler/The New York Times
Children playing last week in Sandtown-Winchester, the Baltimore neighborhood where Freddie Gray was raised. One young resident called it “a tough community.”
The neighborhood where Freddie Gray came of age has survived harrowing rates of unemployment, poor health, violent crime and incarceration.
Maya Plisetskaya, Ballerina Who Embodied Bolshoi, Dies at 89
Ms. Plisetskaya, renowned for her fluidity of movement, expressive acting and willful personality, danced on the Bolshoi stage well into her 60s, but her life was shadowed by Stalinism.
G.O.P. Hopefuls Now Aiming to Woo the Middle Class
WASHINGTON — The last three men to win the Republican nomination have been the prosperous son of a president (George W. Bush), a senator who could not recall how many homes his family owned (John McCain of Arizona; it was seven) and a private equity executive worth an estimated $200 million (Mitt Romney).
The candidates hoping to be the party’s nominee in 2016 are trying to create a very different set of associations. On Sunday, Ben Carson, a retired neurosurgeon, joined the presidential field.
Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk, as he urges audiences not to forget “the workers in our hotel kitchens, the landscaping crews in our neighborhoods, the late-night janitorial staff that clean our offices.”
Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin, a preacher’s son, posts on Twitter about his ham-and-cheese sandwiches and boasts of his coupon-clipping frugality. His $1 Kohl’s sweater has become a campaign celebrity in its own right.
Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky laments the existence of “two Americas,” borrowing the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s phrase to describe economically and racially troubled communities like Ferguson, Mo., and Detroit.
“Some say, ‘But Democrats care more about the poor,’ ” Mr. Paul likes to say. “If that’s true, why is black unemployment still twice white unemployment? Why has household income declined by $3,500 over the past six years?”
We are in the midst of the Empathy Primary — the rhetorical battleground shaping the Republican presidential field of 2016.
Harmed by the perception that they favor the wealthy at the expense of middle-of-the-road Americans, the party’s contenders are each trying their hardest to get across what the elder George Bush once inelegantly told recession-battered voters in 1992: “Message: I care.”
Their ability to do so — less bluntly, more sincerely — could prove decisive in an election year when power, privilege and family connections will loom large for both parties.
Questions of understanding and compassion cost Republicans in the last election. Mr. Romney, who memorably dismissed the “47 percent” of Americans as freeloaders, lost to President Obama by 63 percentage points among voters who cast their ballots for the candidate who “cares about people like me,” according to exit polls.
And a Pew poll from February showed that people still believe Republicans are indifferent to working Americans: 54 percent said the Republican Party does not care about the middle class.
That taint of callousness explains why Senator Ted Cruz of Texas declared last week that Republicans “are and should be the party of the 47 percent” — and why another son of a president, Jeb Bush, has made economic opportunity the centerpiece of his message.
With his pedigree and considerable wealth — since he left the Florida governor’s office almost a decade ago he has earned millions of dollars sitting on corporate boards and advising banks — Mr. Bush probably has the most complicated task making the argument to voters that he understands their concerns.
On a visit last week to Puerto Rico, Mr. Bush sounded every bit the populist, railing against “elites” who have stifled economic growth and innovation. In the kind of economy he envisions leading, he said: “We wouldn’t have the middle being squeezed. People in poverty would have a chance to rise up. And the social strains that exist — because the haves and have-nots is the big debate in our country today — would subside.”
Republicans’ emphasis on poorer and working-class Americans now represents a shift from the party’s longstanding focus on business owners and “job creators” as the drivers of economic opportunity.
This is intentional, Republican operatives said.
In the last presidential election, Republicans rushed to defend business owners against what they saw as hostility by Democrats to successful, wealthy entrepreneurs.
“Part of what you had was a reaction to the Democrats’ dehumanization of business owners: ‘Oh, you think you started your plumbing company? No you didn’t,’ ” said Grover Norquist, the conservative activist and president of Americans for Tax Reform.
But now, Mr. Norquist said, Republicans should move past that. “Focus on the people in the room who know someone who couldn’t get a job, or a promotion, or a raise because taxes are too high or regulations eat up companies’ time,” he said. “The rich guy can take care of himself.”
Democrats argue that the public will ultimately see through such an approach because Republican positions like opposing a minimum-wage increase and giving private banks a larger role in student loans would hurt working Americans.
“If Republican candidates are just repeating the same tired policies, I’m not sure that smiling while saying it is going to be enough,” said Guy Cecil, a Democratic strategist who is joining a “super PAC” working on behalf of Hillary Rodham Clinton.
Republicans have already attacked Mrs. Clinton over the wealth and power she and her husband have accumulated, caricaturing her as an out-of-touch multimillionaire who earns hundreds of thousands of dollars per speech and has not driven a car since 1996.
Mr. Walker hit this theme recently on Fox News, pointing to Mrs. Clinton’s lucrative book deals and her multiple residences. “This is not someone who is connected with everyday Americans,” he said. His own net worth, according to The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, is less than a half-million dollars; Mr. Walker also owes tens of thousands of dollars on his credit cards.
But showing off a cheap sweater or boasting of a bootstraps family background not only helps draw a contrast with Mrs. Clinton’s latter-day affluence, it is also an implicit argument against Mr. Bush.
Mr. Walker, who featured a 1998 Saturn with more than 100,000 miles on the odometer in a 2010 campaign ad during his first run for governor, likes to talk about flipping burgers at McDonald’s as a young person. His mother, he has said, grew up on a farm with no indoor plumbing until she was in high school.
Mr. Rubio, among the least wealthy members of the Senate, with an estimated net worth of around a half-million dollars, uses his working-class upbringing as evidence of the “exceptionalism” of America, “where even the son of a bartender and a maid can have the same dreams and the same future as those who come from power and privilege.”
Mr. Cruz alludes to his family’s dysfunction — his parents, he says, were heavy drinkers — and recounts his father’s tale of fleeing Cuba with $100 sewn into his underwear.
Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey notes that his father paid his way through college working nights at an ice cream plant.
But sometimes the attempts at projecting authenticity can seem forced. Mr. Christie recently found himself on the defensive after telling a New Hampshire audience, “I don’t consider myself a wealthy man.” Tax returns showed that he and his wife, a longtime Wall Street executive, earned nearly $700,000 in 2013.
The story of success against the odds is a political classic, even if it is one the Republican Party has not been able to tell for a long time. Ronald Reagan liked to say that while he had not been born on the wrong side of the tracks, he could always hear the whistle. Richard Nixon was fond of reminding voters how he was born in a house his father had built.
“Probably the idea that is most attractive to an average voter, and an idea that both Republicans and Democrats try to craft into their messages, is this idea that you can rise from nothing,” said Charles C. W. Cooke, a writer for National Review.
There is a certain delight Republicans take in turning that message to their advantage now.
“That’s what Obama did with Hillary,” Mr. Cooke said. “He acknowledged it openly: ‘This is ridiculous. Look at me, this one-term senator with dark skin and all of America’s unsolved racial problems, running against the wife of the last Democratic president.”
Dave Goldberg Was Lifelong Women’s Advocate
Even as a high school student, Dave Goldberg was urging female classmates to speak up. As a young dot-com executive, he had one girlfriend after another, but fell hard for a driven friend named Sheryl Sandberg, pining after her for years. After they wed, Mr. Goldberg pushed her to negotiate hard for high compensation and arranged his schedule so that he could be home with their children when she was traveling for work.
Mr. Goldberg, who died unexpectedly on Friday, was a genial, 47-year-old Silicon Valley entrepreneur who built his latest company, SurveyMonkey, from a modest enterprise to one recently valued by investors at $2 billion. But he was also perhaps the signature male feminist of his era: the first major chief executive in memory to spur his wife to become as successful in business as he was, and an essential figure in “Lean In,” Ms. Sandberg’s blockbuster guide to female achievement.
Over the weekend, even strangers were shocked at his death, both because of his relatively young age and because they knew of him as the living, breathing, car-pooling center of a new philosophy of two-career marriage.
“They were very much the role models for what this next generation wants to grapple with,” said Debora L. Spar, the president of Barnard College. In a 2011 commencement speech there, Ms. Sandberg told the graduates that whom they married would be their most important career decision.
In the play “The Heidi Chronicles,” revived on Broadway this spring, a male character who is the founder of a media company says that “I don’t want to come home to an A-plus,” explaining that his ambitions require him to marry an unthreatening helpmeet. Mr. Goldberg grew up to hold the opposite view, starting with his upbringing in progressive Minneapolis circles where “there was woman power in every aspect of our lives,” Jeffrey Dachis, a childhood friend, said in an interview.
The Goldberg parents read “The Feminine Mystique” together — in fact, Mr. Goldberg’s father introduced it to his wife, according to Ms. Sandberg’s book. In 1976, Paula Goldberg helped found a nonprofit to aid children with disabilities. Her husband, Mel, a law professor who taught at night, made the family breakfast at home.
Later, when Dave Goldberg was in high school and his prom date, Jill Chessen, stayed silent in a politics class, he chastised her afterward. He said, “You need to speak up,” Ms. Chessen recalled in an interview. “They need to hear your voice.”
Years later, when Karin Gilford, an early employee at Launch Media, Mr. Goldberg’s digital music company, became a mother, he knew exactly what to do. He kept giving her challenging assignments, she recalled, but also let her work from home one day a week. After Yahoo acquired Launch, Mr. Goldberg became known for distributing roses to all the women in the office on Valentine’s Day.
Ms. Sandberg, who often describes herself as bossy-in-a-good-way, enchanted him when they became friendly in the mid-1990s. He “was smitten with her,” Ms. Chessen remembered. Ms. Sandberg was dating someone else, but Mr. Goldberg still hung around, even helping her and her then-boyfriend move, recalled Bob Roback, a friend and co-founder of Launch. When they finally married in 2004, friends remember thinking how similar the two were, and that the qualities that might have made Ms. Sandberg intimidating to some men drew Mr. Goldberg to her even more.
Over the next decade, Mr. Goldberg and Ms. Sandberg pioneered new ways of capturing information online, had a son and then a daughter, became immensely wealthy, and hashed out their who-does-what-in-this-marriage issues. Mr. Goldberg’s commute from the Bay Area to Los Angeles became a strain, so he relocated, later joking that he “lost the coin flip” of where they would live. He paid the bills, she planned the birthday parties, and both often left their offices at 5:30 so they could eat dinner with their children before resuming work afterward.
Friends in Silicon Valley say they were careful to conduct their careers separately, politely refusing when outsiders would ask one about the other’s work: Ms. Sandberg’s role building Facebook into an information and advertising powerhouse, and Mr. Goldberg at SurveyMonkey, which made polling faster and cheaper. But privately, their work was intertwined. He often began statements to his team with the phrase “Well, Sheryl said” sharing her business advice. He counseled her, too, starting with her salary negotiations with Mark Zuckerberg.
“I wanted Mark to really feel he stretched to get Sheryl, because she was worth it,” Mr. Goldberg explained in a 2013 “60 Minutes” interview, his Minnesota accent and his smile intact as he offered a rare peek of the intersection of marriage and money at the top of corporate life.
While his wife grew increasingly outspoken about women’s advancement, Mr. Goldberg quietly advised the men in the office on family and partnership matters, an associate said. Six out of 16 members of SurveyMonkey’s management team are female, an almost unheard-of ratio among Silicon Valley “unicorns,” or companies valued at over $1 billion.
When Mellody Hobson, a friend and finance executive, wrote a chapter of “Lean In” about women of color for the college edition of the book, Mr. Goldberg gave her feedback on the draft, a clue to his deep involvement. He joked with Ms. Hobson that she was too long-winded, like Ms. Sandberg, but aside from that, he said he loved the chapter, she said in an interview.
By then, Mr. Goldberg was a figure of fascination who inspired a “where can I get one of those?” reaction among many of the women who had read the best seller “Lean In.” Some lamented that Ms. Sandberg’s advice hinged too much on marrying a Dave Goldberg, who was humble enough to plan around his wife, attentive enough to worry about which shoes his young daughter would wear, and rich enough to help pay for the help that made the family’s balancing act manageable.
Now that he is gone, and Ms. Sandberg goes from being half of a celebrated partnership to perhaps the business world’s most prominent single mother, the pages of “Lean In” carry a new sting of loss.
“We are never at 50-50 at any given moment — perfect equality is hard to define or sustain — but we allow the pendulum to swing back and forth between us,” she wrote in 2013, adding that they were looking forward to raising teenagers together.
“Fortunately, I have Dave to figure it out with me,” she wrote.
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